Contrary to Jean Piaget who saw children's drama in largely intellectual or cognitive developmental terms, Parten highlighted the idea that learning how to play with is learning how to interact with others. As children grow and grow, play evolves. Particular varieties of play are related to particular age groups, although all kinds of play happen at almost any age. Play is how children interact and explore the world, and also different kinds of play are required to completely engage a child's social, physical, and cognitive development.
Parten's Social Stages of Play
1. Unoccupied play
Generally found from birth to about three months, infants occupied themselves with unoccupied play. Babies seem to make random movements without a obvious purpose, and may seem to only be observing, but this really is the first kind of playing.
2. Solitary play
From three to 18 months, kids will spend much of their time playing on their own. During play, kids do not seem to notice other children playing or sitting nearby. They are researching their own planet by watching, grabbing and touching items. Solitary play begins in infancy and is common in toddlers. But, it is important for all age groups to have some time for alone play.
3. Onlooker play
Onlooker play happens most frequently throughout the toddler years. A child watches other children play and acquires new language skills through observation and listening, while learning how to interact with others. Although kids may ask questions of other kids or make remarks, there's absolutely no effort to combine the play. This sort of play generally starts during toddler years but may take place at any age.
4. Parallel play
By age 18 months to 2 years, children begin to play alongside other children, often mimicking them, but without any interaction. Parallel play provides young children with opportunities for role-playing. Additionally, it helps kids gain the comprehension of this idea of property ownership, including the idea of what's"theirs" and that which belongs to"others."
Additionally, this is when they start to reveal their requirement to be together with other children their own age. Parallel play is usually found with toddlers, although it occurs in any age category.
5. Associative play
When kids are around a few years old, they become more interested in other children than their toys. Kids start interacting with other children. Associative play is when the child is interested in the people playing but maybe not in coordinating their activities with those people, or even necessarily organizing their actions in any way. Associative play helps kids further develop the art of sharing, language development, problem-solving skills and cooperation. During associative play, kids within the group have similar goals. However, they don't set rules and there is not any formal association.
6. Social/cooperative play
Children around age three are beginning to interact with other kids. They are interested in the children around themand at the activities they are doing. By interacting with other kids in play settings, a child learns social rules such as give-and-take and cooperation. Kids begin to discuss toys and ideas, and follow established rules and guidelines. They begin to learn to use moral reasoning to develop a sense of values. Activities are coordinated and participants have assigned roles. Group identities might emerge, as with make-believe games.
Past Parten's Stages, play can also be clarified by these additional categories or kinds of activities children can participate in during play.
When children run, jump, and play games such as hide-and-seek and tag, they're engaging in physical drama. Physical play offers a chance for children
to develop muscle strength, coordination, and exercise and develop their own bodies appropriately, while maintaining healthy weight. Kids also learn how to take turns and take losing or winning.
8. Constructive Play
In this type of drama, kids build and create things. Constructive play starts in infancy and becomes even more complex as your child grows. As a toddler, children start building things with blocks or stacking toys, drawing or piling loose parts like wood or pinecones on the park. During constructive play, children explore objects, find patterns, and problem solve, to discover what works and what doesn't. They gain confidence manipulating objects, and exercise producing ideas and working with numbers and concepts.
9. Expressive Play
Children learn how to express feelings and emotions during expressive play. Art, music, and writing help children develop imagination and symbolic communication through expressive play.
Kids learn to create and envision beyond their world through fantasy play. They might assume adult roles and learn how to think in abstract ways. Kids can re-enact scenarios, experiment with languages, and learn how to communicate feelings during fantasy play. They can also work out psychological issues by throwing them onto a dream situation.
11. Aggressive Play
Competitive play starts in the late adolescence interval. The drama is organized by group goals and established rules. There's at least one leader, and children are definitely in or outside of this group.
Kids are moving from a self-centered globe to an awareness of the importance of social interactions and principles. Part of the development happens when they know games like Tag, Follow the Leader, Simon Says, and team sports.
12. Virtual / Digital Play
When children play electronic video games or even computer-based learning applications, they're engaging in a kind of solitary playwith. There is no social interaction or effects. If excess, virtual play frequently negatively impacts a child's executive functioning and social skills, such as eye contact and attention span.
It's important to allow children to engage in all of these types of play due to their overall emotional, intellectual, and physical development. Many of these styles of play will begin in the home, but some forms can only begin in pre-schools, rehab centers, or out in public parks and on the indoor playground sale
. Make sure your child's well-being by imagining which styles of play have to be introduced at home, and provide them the opportunity to grow by visiting your regional park or park.